Mesenchymal Stromal Cells as Cell-Based Therapeutics for Wound Healing

Samir Malhotra,1 Michael S. Hu,1,2,3 Clement D. Marshall,1 Tripp Leavitt,1 Alexander T. M. Cheung,1 Jennifer G. Gonzalez,1 Harleen Kaur,1 H. Peter Lorenz,1 and Michael T. Longaker1,2 1

Hagey Laboratory for Pediatric Regenerative Medicine, Department of Surgery, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA 2 Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA 3 Department of Surgery, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96813, USA 

Correspondence should be addressed to Michael S. Hu; mhu2@stanford.edu 

Received 27 October 2015; Revised 3 January 2016; Accepted 13 January 2016 

Academic Editor: Pavla Jendelova 

Copyright © 2016 Samir Malhotra et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Chronic wounds are a source of substantial morbidity for patients and are a major financial burden for the healthcare system. There are no current therapies that reliably improve non-healing wounds or reverse pathological scarring. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a promising source of novel cell-based therapies due to the ease of their harvest and their integral role in the native wound repair process. Recent work has addressed the problems of loss of plasticity and off-target delivery through use of modern bioengineering techniques. 

Here we describe the applications of MSCs harvested from different sources to the wound healing process and recent advances in delivery of MSCs to targeted sites of injury. 

 

SUMMARY ON THE ARTICLE

 

SCI2016-4157934.001

Image Credit: (US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health)

Main points:

  • Chronic wounds typically manifest in the elderly or those afflicted by diabetes mellitus or peripheral arterial disease.
  • Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a promising source of novel cell-based therapies due to the ease of their harvest and their integral role in the native wound repair process.
  • MSCs are known to play an integral role in driving angiogenesis by secreting signalling/growth factors and also directing cell-to-cell interaction. Failure to maintain angiogenesis during wound repair is known to lead to chronic wound development.
  • MSCs play a significant role in allowing the wound to advance past the inflammatory phase and into the proliferation phase of wound repair. Failure to correctly exit the inflammatory phase results in excessive scar production.
  • MSCs can effectively suppress the recruitment and proliferation of activated T-cells responding to the injury. Anti-inflammatory properties of MSCs play a critical role in allowing the wound to commit to the next stage of wound repair and avoid becoming a chronic, nonhealing wound 2 | Page Research conclusions:  Early animal experiments done with Bone Marrow – Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (BMhMSCs) suggests a systemic response that is characterized by the recruitment of existing host MSCs to the site of injury.
  • The increased presence of proangiogenic factors after BM-hMSC transplantation suggests that BM-hMSCs could be utilized to rescue deficient angiogenesis observed in chronic wound environments.  Whole bone marrow has demonstrated increased healing capabilities compared to wounds transplanted with only BM-MSCs.
  • BM-hMSC-derived exosomes are able to enhance the migration of chronic wound fibroblasts and induce angiogenesis in vitro.
  • BM-hMSCs delivered with fibrin glue do significantly increase the quality of healed skin in chronic wound conditions.
  • BM-hMSCs injected into chronic wounds treated with collagen sponge composite graft resulted in a 90% healing rate of chronic wounds. Overall conclusion:
  •  Both preclinical and clinical data have shown strong support for the continued development of BM-hMSC-based therapies for chronic wounds.

Review Article: Mesenchymal Stromal Cells as Cell-Based Therapeutics for Wound Healing, (Hindawi Publishing Corp. Stem Cells International, Volume 2016, Article ID 4157934, 6pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/4157934)

Published Year: 2016

Source/Full article here: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4757746/pdf/SCI2016-4157934.pdf